Monday, March 16, 2009

Fagonia cretica

The drug consists of dried whole plant of Fagonia cretica Linn. (Plate 2.1 A & B); syn. F. bruguiri DC. Incl., F. indica Burm. F., F. Arabica Linn., F. mysorensis Roth.; Fam. Zygophyllaceae. It is a small green, spiny, branched, woody plant occurring in dry regions of northwest India.

Other names
Hind. - Dhamasa, Hingua, Dhamhar, Ustarkhar, Usturgar, Hinguna, Damahan
Pan. - Dhamah, Dhamaha, Samada, Dama, Damiya.
Beng.- Duralabha, Dhanyavas
Sind. - Drammaha
Guj. - Dhramau, Dharama, Dhamasa, Dhamaso, Damasha
Assa. - Shukai
Mar. - Dhamasa, Kante chubuk, Dumaso, Dhamasa
Kan. - Valliduruve, Nelayindal
Tel. - Pilaregati, Dulgodi, Chittigara


It is a small spiny under shrub with branches, often more or less prostrate, twings slender, striate, glabrous and glandular. Leaves are opposite, 1-3 foliate, about 12 by 2.5 mm, entire, linear or elliptic mucronate. Petiole very variable, 0.3 cm long, sometimes leaf like stipules transformed into sharp slender spines up to 1-2 cm long, persistant and continuing growth after the fall of the leaves.
Flowers solitary, rose-colored, arising from between the stipules. Sepals are five, deciduous, imbricate half as long as petals. Petals are 6 mm long, spahulate with a marked claw, disk short, inconspicuous. Stamens are 10, inserted on the disk. Ovary 5 angled, 5 celled, tapering in to 5 – angled style. Stigma simple. Fruit 5- mm long of 5-seeded cocci, glandular pubescent, deeply 5partite almost to the axis, cocci dehishing along the ventral suture and separating a horny endocarp.

Diagrammatic T.S is circular with distinct eleation and depressions, showing hypodermal, mesocortical and pericyclic fibres, a narrow phloem, and wide xylem encircling a hollow center or rarly a small parenchymatous pith.
TS of the root
Transverse section of the root was circular in outline. In the centre lies the wood, occupied almost half the region of the whole section cortex and phloem tissue were characterized by the presence of nonlignified stone cells and fibers.
Outermost tissue consisted of about 5-6 raws of suberised rectangular cells.
A wide zone of 10 to 15 paenchymatous cells consisted of isolated or groups of seleroids towards the inner region. Stone cells were rectangular, thick walled, pitted and measured 7-10 micron in breadth. Fibres were long, tapering and measured 110-120 micron in length and 3-6 micron in breadth. Few slit like pits were seen on the walls of some of fibres. Both stone cells and fibres were non lignified. The parenchymatous cells were filled with simple starch grains.
It was a wide non lignified zone constited of 10-15 raws of cells contained sieve tissue, phloem lied adjacent to the xylem was entirely parenchymatous. The parenchymatous cells of the phloem contained simple starch grains.
Young TS showed the diarch condition of the xylem in the centre which was occupid by wide lignified zone in the older root, xylem vessels were associeated with parenchyma, fibres and tracheids. The vessels were pitted and reticulate and measured 46-120 micron in length and 8-14 micron in breadth. Fifres were narrow, tapering, thick wqalled and occasionally exhibited slit like pits. Hey were measured 125-300 micron in length and 8-10 micron in breadth.
M ray were mostly uniseriate. The cells were thick walled and rectangular in shape. The cells of the M rays and xylem parenchyma contained simple starch grains. The starch grain of the xylem, phloem and cotex region of the root measured 1.1-3.1 micron in diameter.
Leaf-Diagrammatic TS passing through the midrib is broadly convex at lower side, with slight elevation on upper side, shows 3 to 5 centrally located meristeles, few rows of collenchymatous tissue under both the epidermii and broad lateral dorsiventral laminar extensions on either side.
Detailed TS shows a layer of upper and lower epidermis with undulated margin, covered with thick, cuticle exhibiting stomata and scars left by removal of trichomes at places, the cells of the upper epidermis being bigger in size than the lower ones; a narrow 2 to 5 celled wide collenchymatous band underneath the upper and lower epidermis of the midrib; the paranchymatous ground tissue embedded with 3 to 5 bicollateral meristeles, the centrally located being the biggest in size; mesophyll occupied by a layer of palisade underneath the upper epidermis and 8 to 10 rows of spongy parenchyma traversed with obliquely cut vascular strands, oil globules and few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.

Chemical constituents
Saponin-I, saponin-II1,2
Others3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl] hederagenin 28-O- β-D glucopyranosyl ester, 3-O-[ β -D-glucopyranosyl (1→2)- α -L-arabinopyranosyl] oleanolic acid 28-O-[ β –D glucopyranosyl (1→6)- β -D-glucopyranosyl] ester, 3-O-[ β -D- glucopyranosyl (1→2)- α –L arabinopyranosyl] 27-hydroxy oleanolic acid 28-O-[ β -D-glucopyranosyl (1→6)- β –D glucopyranosyl] ester, 3-O- β -D glucopyranosyl (1→2)- α -L-arabinopyranosyl] olean-12-en-27-al-28-oic acid 28-O-[β –D glucopyranosyl (1→6)- β -D-glucopyranosyl] ester3, 3-O-[ β -D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)]-[ α -L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]- α -L-arabinopyranosyl}-ursolic acid 28-O-[ β -D-glucopyranosyl] ester (indicasaponin A), 3-O-{[ β -D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)]-[ α -L arabinopyranosyl-(1→3)]- α -L-arabinopyranosyl}-oleanolic acid-28-O-[β –D glucopyranosyl] ester (indicasaponin B), 3-O-[ β -D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)- α –L arabinopyranosyl]-ursolic acid-28-O-[ β -D-glucopyranosyl] ester, 3-O-[ β -D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)- α -L-arabinopyranosyl]-oleanolic acid-28-O-[ β -D-glucopyranosyl] ester4, 3-O- β -D-xylopyranosyl(1→2)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)]- α -L-arabinopyranosyl oleanolic acid 28-O- β -D-glucopyranoside, 3-O- β -D-glucopyranosyl (1→2)-[ β -D-glucopyranosyl(1→3)]- α –L arabinopyranosyl oleanolic acid 28-O- β -D-glucopyranoside, 3-O- β -D-xylopyranosyl(1→2)-[ β -D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)]- α -L-arabinopyranosyl oleanolic acid, 3-O- β –D glucopyranosyl(1→2)-[ β -D-glucopyranosyl(1→3)]- α -L-arabino pyranosyloleanolic acid, 3-O- β -D-xyiopyranosyl(1→2)-[ β -D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)]- α -L-arabinopyranosyl 27-hydroxyoleanolic acid, 28-O- β -D-glucopyranoside, 3-O- β -D-xylopyranosyl(1→2)-[ β -D-glucopyranosyl(1→3)]- α -L-arabinopyranosyl ursolic acid 28-O- β -D-glucopyranoside and 3-O- β -D-xylopyranosyl (1→2)-[ β -D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)- α-L-arabinopyranosyl 27-hydroxyursolic acid 28-O- β -D-glucopyranoside,5 21,22 α -epoxy-23-O- β -d-glucopyranosyl-nahagenin623,28-di-O- β -d- glucopyranosyltaraxer-20-en-28-oic acid,3b,28-di-O- β -D glucopyranosyl 23-hydroxytaraxer-20-en-28-oic acid7, 3-O-( β-D xylopyranosyl (1→2) α -L-arabinopyranosyl) 27-hydroxyoleanolic acid 28-O-( β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→6) β-D-glucopyranosyl) ester, 3 β -O-( β -D-xylopyranosyl(1→2) α -L-arabinopyranosyl) olean-12-en-27-al-28-oic acid 28-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1→6) β -D-glycopyranosyl) ester,8 hederagenin-3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, hederagenin-3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl (1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-28-O-β-D glucopyranoside9; 15,16-dihydroxy-7-oxo-cis-ent-erythrox-3-ene (fagonone), 16-O-acetylfagonone10, 15,16-dihydroxy-7-β-hydroxy-cis-ent-erythrox-3-ene (7-β-hydroxyfagonene)11;Triterpene IV, Triterpene V, Triterpene VI 12; sulphated derivative of 3 β,27-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid, 3 β,27-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid, disulfated oleanene derivative13; isorhamnetin 3-glucoside, 3-rutinoside, herbacetin 8-rutinoside, herbacetin 8-methyl ether-3-rutinoside, 3,7-diglucoside, 3-rutinoside-7 glucoside14; quarcetin, caempferol 15; 3-glucosides of kaempferol, quercetin and isorhamnetin, 3-rutinoside of quercetin, 3,7-diglucoside of quercetin and isorhamnetin., kaempferol 3,7-diglycoside, quercetin 3-diglycoside16, Aglycon A(fagonin), Aglycon B17, genin A, genin B18; triterpenoid fagonin19; oleanolic acid19,20,21; Kaempferol, Quarcetine and isorhamnetine22, Quercetin, kaempferol23;Glucose, maltose, arabinose, rhamnose17; free amino acids alanine, arginine, glycine, isoleucine, lysine, phenylalanine, proline, tyrosine, and valine24, Lysine, threonine, aspartic acid, serine, glutamic acid25, Leucine, methionine, alanine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid26; β sitosterol27,28,29, stigmasterol, campesterol27, lanosterol29; caproic acid, caprylic acid, luaric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid30; 1-triacontanol27, n-triacontanol28; free ascorbic acid31­; Betulin18; Quinovic acid32,33,methyl ester of quinovic acid33; Docosyl-Docosanoate34; harman 19,35; Harmine36; ceryl alcohol28; Nahagenin37; Diosgenin and kryptogenin29.

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